Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Motricidade]]> vol. 17 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[The expected number of olympic medals: a case study of team Portugal at Tokyo 2020]]> <![CDATA[Culture, policies, and a move to integrate an assets-based approach to development in the portuguese sport system]]> ABSTRACT The purpose of this article is to propose the integration of an assets-based approach to development in the Portuguese sport system. The propositions advanced are aimed at instigating reflections on policy-level initiatives that can be undertaken with the intent of bettering the state of sport in Portugal. We argue that changes from an assets-based approach are needed in both policy and practice to influence the current Portuguese sport culture positively. Specifically, an assets-based approach could prompt a move towards deliverables aimed at promoting social development rather than a unidimensional focus on winning and performance. Based on the current state of affairs, reflections for rethinking the culture and policies of the Portuguese sport system are offered. <![CDATA[Asymmetry in parkinson's disease and its relationship with strength]]> ABSTRACT The onset side in Parkinson's disease remains unclear. Furthermore, the motor symptoms are typically unilateral, with the onset side often remaining more affected throughout the disease course. Therefore, as Parkinson's disease is an idiopathic disease, several questions are raised, one of them how the disease affects each person differently. For example, a person can be right-handed for the upper limb and left-footed for the lower limb, which can change strength scores. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the differences in muscle strength in people with Parkinson's disease, right-handed for upper limb and right-footed for lower limb, that have one most affected side, right or left side, on the upper and lower body. The sample consisted of 26 individuals diagnosed with Parkinson's disease, right-handed for the upper limb and right-footed for the lower limb. Subjects needed to visit the laboratory one time to assess handgrip and knee extensors strength. There were no differences between sides in upper limbs affected by the disease, and there were no differences between sides in lower limbs affected by the disease, p&gt; 0.05. There were no differences in strength between sides of the same body part affected by the disease. To say that people affected on the determined side are weaker than others may be a misconception since Parkinson's disease is idiopathic. <![CDATA[Effects of virtual rehabilitation on postural control of individuals with Parkinson disease]]> ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease causes a progressive decline of motor and cognitive functions, often affecting postural control. Training through virtual reality has been shown to be effective in improving this condition. This study aims to analyse the effects of the Kinect Adventures! games in postural control of people with Parkinson's disease. Ten individuals diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, in stages I to III of the Hoehn &amp; Yahr scale, aged between 48 and 73 years, were selected. Fourteen training sessions of one hour each, twice a week, were performed. Individuals were evaluated pre, post-intervention and 30 days after the last session of intervention by a force platform that measured the oscillation area and velocity of the centre of pressure in ten different sensory conditions and the Limits of Stability. Limits of Stability showed a statistically significant increase immediately after the training the 14 sessions, as were observed and there were no significant changes in oscillation area and velocity immediately after the intervention or 30 days after the end of training. The results of this study indicate that the training with Kinect Adventures! Games improve the postural control of people with Parkinson's disease, by increasing the Limits of Stability. <![CDATA[Strength training with blood flow restriction in HIV patients positive: a case study]]> ABSTRACT This study purposed to compare responses of segmented neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and T lymphocyte Clusters of Differentiation 4 and 8 to blood flow restriction training in HIV patients. Two HIV patients participated in the study, one patient had a sedentary lifestyle, and the other was physically active. HIV-infected female patients performed a blood flow restriction training session consisting of two exercises: flat bench press and knee extension. Blood (6 mL) was collected for analysis prior to training, immediately after training, and 30 minutes after. After blood flow restriction training, percentage changes in the number of leukocytes were observed in both patients. Monocytes showed different responses in the two patients: a decrease in monocyte count was seen in the physically active, and an increase was observed in the sedentary lifestyle. Lymphocytes showed a higher increase in the physically active than in the sedentary lifestyle. There was an increase in the CD4+ / CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio in both patients. It was concluded blood flow restriction promoted acute inflammation after training, shown by changes in immune cell counts. These changes did not promote immunosuppression; instead, an increase in CD4+ / CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio was observed; and HIV-infected came similar results. <![CDATA[Reliability of the handheld dynamometer in the evaluation of the muscle strength of trunk extensors in healthy adults]]> ABSTRACT The muscular performance of the lumbar spine is frequently assessed in studies that compare populations with and without low back pain. However, the gold standard equipment used to evaluate the strength of these muscles has a high cost. Therefore, rarely used in the clinical practice of health professionals, being the handheld dynamometer an accessible alternative for use in clinical practice. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the reliability of the handheld dynamometer in the measurement of maximum voluntary isometric contraction of trunk extensors in healthy adults. Twenty-six healthy adults of both sexes (21.53± 1.88 years old) performed the test and retest with a 1-week interval. The comparison between test-retest demonstrated high and very high intraclass correlation coefficient for peak strength (0.82; 0.60 to 0.92) and mean strength (0.90; 0.76 to 0.95), respectively. Also, the Bland-Altman analyses indicate an error of 5.10 kg for peak strength and 5.7 kg for mean strength. In addition, the minimum detectable change for peak strength was 6.03kg (16.18%) and 5.92 kg for mean strength (20.95%). In conclusion, the test presents high reliability for the extensor muscles of the trunk in healthy adults. Therefore, the use of the handheld dynamometer can be indicated for clinical practice. <![CDATA[Psychometric properties of the of the university sport experiences scale – portuguese]]> ABSTRACT Over the last decades, qualitative methods have dominated Positive Development through sports research. Therefore, valid and reliable quantitative measurement tools are scarce. Additionally, most Positive Development research has focused on youth sport contexts. University sport has been considered a crucial period for a Positive Development approach, and researchers have created the University Sport Experience Survey, which assesses Positive Development in university sport. Although the psychometric properties of USES were confirmed, its validity may be confined to Canadian settings. This study aimed to investigate a cross-cultural adaptation of the University Sport Experiences Survey for a Portuguese-speaking population of university athletes. Our results suggest this confirmed model, containing Portuguese translated items, has strong factorial validity for assessing developmental outcomes of university-aged student-athletes in Brazilian university contexts. Current results support the external validity of University Sport Experiences Survey and offer evidence of the first validated Portuguese assessment tool for assessing Positive Development in university sport. <![CDATA[Dietary intake of young portuguese handball players]]> ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyse dietary intake (macronutrients and micronutrients) in young female and male handball athletes. A transversal study was performed with young handball players from sub 16 and 18 Portuguese Handball Federation, who volunteered to participate in this study. Anthropometric (weight and height measure), nutritional intake (using food frequency questionnaire) and position in the game were evaluated. The final sample comprised 64 athletes (48.4% female and 51.6% male). The mean age was 16± 1 years, average body mass index was higher in females (24.1± 3.5kg/m2) than males (23.8± 3.0 kg/m2). Mean energy intake per day was significantly lower in females than males 2167.4± 1185.0 and 2952.9± 1315.8 kcal/day (p= 0.015, 95CI), respectively. According to the recommendations from food, most of the young handball athletes reported a generally higher dietary intake (protein intake was near to the upper recommendation limit; the carbohydrate intake was below and the fat intake higher) and a lower for some micronutrients. A process to identify the athletes that need nutritional support should be considered by handball coaches to optimise their performance and safeguard their health. <![CDATA[Confirmatory factorial analysis of tactical skills inventory for sports in young brazilian basketball players]]> RESUMO O interesse da comunidade científica sobre as habilidades táticas de praticantes de esportes coletivos de invasão tem gerado a necessidade para o desenvolvimento de instrumentos capazes de mensurar tais habilidade. Na tentativa de contribuir nesse sentido, o objetivo do presente estudo foi traduzir e analisar as propriedades psicométricas (validade confirmatória e fidedignidade) do Tactical Skills Inventory For Sports para a língua portuguesa do Brasil em jovens basquetebolistas. Participaram do estudo 866 basquetebolistas brasileiros com média de idade 15,83± 1,25 anos. Foi produzida a versão brasileira do Tactical Skills Inventory For Sports. Foi realizado o alfa de Cronbach e a Análise Fatorial Confirmatória. Os valores de alfa de Cronbach apresentaram índices elevados para três dimensões do Tactical Skills Inventory For Sports e no somatório dos itens o alfa de Cronbach foi igual a 0,91. Os resultados da Análise Fatorial Confirmatória apresentaram valores: rácio do valor do qui-quadrado pelos graus de liberdade= 3,120; Confirmatory Fit Index= 0,925; Tucker-Lewis index= 0,914; Standardized Root Mean Square Residual= 0,039; Root Mean Square Error of Aproximation= 0,050 (90%IC= 0,045–0,054). Os resultados obtidos permitiram considerar que a versão brasileira do Tactical Skills Inventory For Sports, com 22 itens, constitui um questionário válido e fidedigno, para a utilização em jovens basquetebolistas brasileiros.<hr/>ABSTRACT The interest of the scientific community in the tactical skills of practitioners of collective invasion sports has generated the need for the development of instruments capable of measuring such skills in an attempt to contribute in this direction. The present study aimed to translate and analyse the psychometric properties (confirmatory validity and reliability) of the Tactical Skills Inventory for Sports into the Portuguese language in young Brazilian basketball players. A total of 866 basketball players with a mean age of 15.83± 1.25 years participated in the study. The Brazilian version of Tactical Skills Inventory for Sports was produced. Cronbach’s alpha was calculated, and the Confirmatory Factor Analysis was performed. The Cronbach’s alpha presented high indexes for 3 dimensions of Tactical Skills Inventory for Sports, and the sum of the items the Cronbach’s alpha value was 0.91. The results of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis presented values= 3.120; Confirmatory Fit Index= 0.925; Tucker-Lewis index= 0.914; Standardized Root Mean Square Residual= 0.039; Root Mean Square Error of Aproximation= 0.050 (90% CI= 0.045–0.054). The obtained results allow us to consider the adapted Brazilian version of Tactical Skills Inventory for Sports, with 22 items, a robust and valid questionnaire, for use in young Brazilian basketball players. <![CDATA[Effects of age and experience on the development of aquatic competence in children aged 36 to 72 months]]> ABSTRACT Considering age and experience as possible constraints to the development of aquatic skills, this study sought to analyse the effect of both on the aquatic competence of 368 children aged between 36 and 72 months using the Erbaugh Scale. Children were categorised according to age and previous aquatic experience in swimming lessons. The results of the two-factor ANOVA indicate that aquatic competence values increase from the lowest to the highest age group and the values found for the different levels of experience in swimming lessons. A regression model was applied and proved to be significant. According to the model, age and previous aquatic experience together were responsible for explaining 46% of the variance in aquatic competence. When applied in each group, the regression analysis indicated that age starts to exert less influence and the experience a greater influence on aquatic competence the older the age groups become. In addition, as the experience increases, the difference in aquatic competence increases between older and younger children. Therefore, the analysis of the contribution of these variables allows professionals to be guided in planning teaching strategies for the development of aquatic competence. <![CDATA[Supine-to-stand task analysis in healthy older adults]]> RESUMO A tarefa de levantar-se do solo é considerada um marco desenvolvimental e um meio útil, válido e confiável para rastreio da competência motora funcional. Em idosos, a diversidade de protocolos usados para a análise dessa tarefa exige exame rigoroso. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o protocolo com maior vantagem metodológica para análise de processo da tarefa de levantar-se do solo em idosos, ambos os sexos e idade ≥ 60 anos. Foi realizada uma revisão sistematizada da literatura sobre os protocolos de análise do processo da tarefa de levantar-se do solo; posteriormente, a aplicação de critérios (clareza na linguagem, isenção de efeito piso e teto, reprodutibilidade e confiabilidade satisfatória, detalhamento da tarefa, tempo de codificação) e a atribuição de escores que somados permitiram classificar os protocolos de acordo com o nível de vantagem metodológica: maior (∑≥ 10), mediana (∑ entre 6–9) ou menor (∑≤ 5). Os resultados mostraram que todos os protocolos foram considerados pelo menos de vantagem mediana. O protocolo proposto por Manini et al. apresentou maior vantagem metodológica (∑= 10). Conclui-se que este protocolo é o mais indicado para análise de processo do levantar-se do solo em idosos, por apresentar excelente desempenho na clareza da linguagem, baixo tempo para codificação, ser isento de efeito piso ou teto, ser reprodutível e confiável.<hr/>ABSTRACT Supine-To-Stand task is considered a developmental milestone, useful, valid, and reliable means of tracking functional motor competence. Concerning the elderly, the diversity of protocols used for Supine-To-Stand analysis requires rigorous examination. This study aimed to determine the protocol with the greatest methodological advantage for analyzing the Supine-To-Stand task process of older adults, both sexes and aged ≥ 60 years. A systematic review was carried out on the process analysis protocols of the Supine-To-Stand task. The application of criteria (clarity of language, exemption from floor and ceiling effect, reproducibility and satisfactory reliability, detail of the task, coding time) and the attribution of scores that added together allowed to classify the protocols according to the level of methodological advantage: greater (∑≥ 10), median (∑ between 6–9) or less(∑≤ 5), allowed the selection of the protocol with the greatest methodological advantage. The results showed that all protocols were considered to be at least of medium advantage. The protocol proposed by Manini et al. presented greater methodological advantage (∑= 10), allowing us to conclude that this protocol is the most suitable for analyzing the Supine-To-Stand process in the elderly, especially for presenting excellent performance in language clarity, low coding time, being free of floor or ceiling effect, being reproducible and reliable. <![CDATA[Dual careers in high sporting performance in europe: a systematic literature review]]> RESUMO O desporto de alto rendimento é hoje reconhecido na Europa como um importante fator de desenvolvimento desportivo dos vários Estados-membros, mas as suas exigências são um problema, para os estudantes-atletas, que procuram compatibilizar os estudos com a prática desportiva de alto rendimento numa carreira dual. Esta revisão sistemática da literatura procura, identificar barreiras e facilitadores à carreira dual relatados em investigações pertinentes, realizadas na Europa nos últimos anos (2015–2020), selecionadas a partir da combinação das palavras-chave “dual career”, “student-athlete”, “elite-athlete” e “school”. A pesquisa foi realizada nas bases de dados Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, Sportdiscus e PsycArticles entre os dias 1 e 21 de junho de 2020. Os resultados permitem identificar, barreiras (o ensino universitário, a adaptação cultural associada à transição cultural, o uso de substâncias, o stress, o burnout desportivo e a gestão do horário) e facilitadores (motivações) que se refletem no sistema escolar, no sistema desportivo, em ambos ou no abandono de uma das carreiras. Os estudos revelam, ainda, uma necessidade de maiores investimentos na compreensão do fenómeno complexo da carreira dual, através de estudos internacionais, com amostras representativas e métodos mistos de investigação, de forma a colmatar dificuldades e encontrar soluções junto de todos os que têm responsabilidade no sucesso da carreira dupla.<hr/>ABSTRACT High-performance sport is now recognised in Europe as an important factor in member states’ sports development. Still, its demands are a problem for student-athletes who seek to make their studies compatible with high-performance sports in a dual career. This systematic review of the literature aims to identify barriers and facilitators to the dual-career reported in relevant investigations carried out in Europe in recent years (2015–2020) selected from the keywords: “dual career” AND “student-athlete”, “elite-athlete” AND “school”. The research was carried out in the databases Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, Sportdiscus and PsycArticles between the 1st and the 21st of June 2020. The results allow identifying barriers (university education, cultural adaptation associated with cultural transition, substance use, stress, sports burnout, and time management) and facilitators (motivations) that are reflected in the school system, in the sports system, in both or the abandonment of one of the careers. The studies also reveal a need for greater investments in understanding the complex phenomenon of dual careers, through international studies, with representative samples and mixed methods of investigation, to overcome difficulties and find solutions with all those who have responsibility in the field of double career success. <![CDATA[Assessment instruments for children in the aquatic environment: a systematic review]]> RESUMO Objetivou-se identificar e descrever instrumentos referentes à avaliação do comportamento aquático de crianças, por meio de revisão sistemática, e discuti-los à luz do conceito de competência aquática. Realizou-se a busca nas bases SPORTDiscus with Full Text, MEDLINE Complete, EMBASE, Web of Science e PubMed. Foram incluídos artigos, teses e dissertações em língua portuguesa, inglesa, espanhola e francesa, sem restrição quanto ao ano e tipo de estudo. A estratégia de busca encontrou 14.099 estudos e 62 foram considerados elegíveis. Identificaram-se 21 instrumentos para crianças sem deficiência e estes incluem, predominantemente, tarefas relacionadas à natação propriamente dita e utilizam a qualidade da execução da tarefa como critério de avaliação. Identificaram-se também 15 instrumentos para crianças com deficiência. Estes incluem, predominantemente, tarefas relacionadas à adaptação ao meio aquático e utilizam o nível de autonomia na execução da tarefa como critério de avaliação. Ressalta-se que para ser competente na água uma criança deve saber executar tarefas de diferentes esportes aquáticos e ser capaz de aplicá-las em ambientes com características distintas. Nesse caso, os instrumentos de avaliação encontrados se mostraram limitados. A partir da problematização realizada percebeu-se a urgência de discutir o conceito de competência aquática para qualificar programas de ensino do nadar.<hr/>ABSTRACT The aim was to identify and describe assessment protocols for children’s aquatic behaviour through a systematic review and discuss the results using the aquatic competence concept. The search was carried out on SPORTDiscus with Full Text, MEDLINE Complete, EMBASE, Web of Science and PubMed. Articles, theses and dissertations in Portuguese, English, Spanish and French were included, without restriction on the year and type of study. The search found 14,099 studies, and 62 were considered eligible. Twenty-one instruments for children without disabilities were identified, and these include tasks related to swimming itself and use the quality of task execution as an evaluation criterion. Fifteen instruments were also identified for children with disabilities. These include tasks related to adaptation to the aquatic environment and use the level of independence in executing the task as an evaluation criterion. To be competent in the aquatic environment, a child must know how to perform tasks of different aquatic sports and be able to apply them in environments with different characteristics. In this regard, the assessment instruments found were limited. Thus, discussing the concept of aquatic competence to qualify swimming teaching programs is urgent.